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مُساهمةموضوع: Medicine   السبت سبتمبر 25, 2010 8:49 pm

Medicine of the most prominent means of medical treatment. Physicians prescribe drugs to treat diseases or to prevent them. In every year save penicillin and other microbicides large numbers of patients with meningitis and pneumonia, and many of the hazardous infectious diseases. As well as prevent the occurrence of measles vaccinations, polio and smallpox, and removes the pain analgesics. The drugs helped, God willing, millions of people to live longer in good health.

Most of the drugs that we know now were not known before the beginning of the twentieth century, for example, note that the sulfa drugs, antibiotics, and most important microbicides have not been used in the treatment only in the late thirties and early forties of the twentieth century AD. Prior to this date he died a lot of people in many parts of the world because of illness and pneumonia, but the use of modern medicines has led to reduced mortality from this disease.

Was used for polio vaccine in 1955. Before that date, the virus that causes the disease affects thousands of people each year. The extinction of the disease of the Western world at the present time, and then doubled life expectancy in Western countries.

It is worth noting that the drug's ability to cause illness or death; may occur from the secretariat of the drug despite significant damage to humans if misused. Vahbub aspirin despite the lack of seriousness, it has a lot of the victims were children who devour disk drives are thinking of them as pieces of candy. And each medication to kill if taken in large doses, and the addition of this was widespread misuse of alcohol, drugs and other medicines which led to the emergence of serious problems.

And we use the word drugs, I mean that pharmaceutical and certain chemicals used by some people, such as alcohol and drugs. But scientists and pharmaceutical call any chemical effect on living tissue, the name of the medicine. If we take their point of view, we find that insecticides, herbicides and chemicals resulting from car exhaust and other pollutants from the environment, types of drugs, their impact on neighborhoods.

This article discusses the particular drugs used for medical purposes. The detailed information on drug abuse in the articles the reader Vigdaa substance abuse and drug addiction.

Scientists have shown in past years, remarkable success and impressive progress in the field of pharmaceutical research, and were able to know the side effects of medicines well, and was also replaced many of the drugs side effects of dangerous drugs safer. Has helped scientific progress in the biochemistry and physiology of all scientists to understand a lot about the medicines well. For example, although aspirin is known as a medicine since the beginning of the twentieth century, but the modus operandi of the drug was only found in 1971. This discovery helped to introduce new uses for this property.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Medicine   السبت سبتمبر 25, 2010 8:50 pm

Rules of use of medicines

No drug is safe at all. Drug is useful when used attributing uses, and harm when used misused. Do not take medication description of the man others. General doctor or dentist is the one who determines what suits you best medicine. If successful drug in the treatment of a person may not succeed with you, to Achtlafcma in age, weight and other physical attributes, and may not be infected with the same disease suffered by the others despite the similarity of symptoms.

Do not retain what I gave him the drug after treatment in order to use it at a later time. You want to get a prescription whenever I get sick. Some diseases are similar in symptoms and the reasons vary.

Do not keep medicines that you buy without a prescription for long periods. So as to change chemically over time. May weaken the impact of some of these medicines or increase as a result of the evaporation of some of its contents and increase the concentration of each other. Consult your pharmacist about the validity of any medication that was not written on the card medicine.

Follow all the instructions in the drug card. With regard to quantity and time of drug abuse and warnings that specializes in cases that should not be taken the medicine. It should be noted the seriousness of the use of large quantities of medicine than recommended by your doctor and the seriousness of the lack of interest guidelines for drug card.

Tell your doctor or dentist of any side effects or unexpected of any medication, there may be some medical effects of medicines is benign and is not expected.

Keep all medicines in a safe place, away from the reach of children and pets, has caused the overdose of any medication may cause serious illness to death.
Types of medicines

Drugs can be classified in several ways:

* For example, depending on the forms, can be classified as medicines, capsules, liquids or Illobac ...
* As can be broken down according to how the abuse Balbla, inhalation or injection ...
* Or according to "chemical composition.
Q: But scientists Pharmacology Iqsmunha according to their effect in the main body, and in this division we note the entry of most drugs within a single group, comprising about a dozen group.

Among the most important of these groups:

1. Medicines for deadly germs.
2. Protective drugs against infectious diseases.
3. Drugs affecting the heart and blood vessels.
4. Drugs affecting the nervous system.

But we must note the impact of drugs on the body more than one way, and on more than one member. Some of the medicines taken to influence the nervous system, but also affect the heart. In this part of the article will be discussed drugs, classified by the main effect in the body.
Drugs that kill germs

Divided drugs that kill germs or help the body to destroy the germs into two types:

1. Antibiotics.
2. Sulfa.

Physicians prescribe these drugs for the treatment of meningitis, pneumonia and many infectious diseases. And wipe out large doses of penicillin and other antibiotics, pathogens, while weakening small doses of these drugs is the ability of bacteria to multiply in the body, and thus help immune systems and defense in the body to get rid of them, and prevent drug sulfa, and some antibiotics, microbial growth and reproduction in body, and may wipe out some of these medicines germs. See: antibiotics; sulfa.
Protective drugs of infectious diseases

Divided medicines protective of infectious diseases into two types: 1 - Vaccines 2 - vaccines and antibody Algelobelinat.

Some of these medicines have special status and importance, such as inflammation of the polio vaccines which there is no cure after the fact.
Vaccines

There are several types of vaccines, and respect each and every one of them alerting the body to produce one type of substances called antibodies that prevent disease and the only one. The vaccine makes the body immunity against a disease, and its ability to alert the body to make antibodies to attack the disease resistance. Has been manufacturing and developing many of the vaccines against many infectious diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, measles, smallpox, whooping cough and polio. Has been successful antiviral drug for smallpox, eradicated the disease fully. Due date of the last occurrence of natural smallpox to 1977. See: immunization.
Vaccines and antibody Algelobeilin

Similarity of vaccines and antibody Algelobeilin vaccines in their ability to prevent some infectious diseases. But differ from vaccines to contain antibodies in their final form rather than contain substances that alert the body to make such antibodies. Therefore, antibody vaccines work more quickly and Algelobeilin of vaccines in preventing disease and prevention. And physicians prescribe such drugs as soon as man was not immune to the disease of the disease itself. The antibiotics used today for the prevention of diseases such as diphtheria and tetanus. Algelobeilin and used for the prevention of diseases such as hepatitis, rabies and tetanus. See: Serum; Algelobeilin.
Drugs affecting the heart and blood vessels

Called on the drugs that affect the heart, blood vessels, the name of cardiovascular drugs. And physicians prescribe these drugs for the treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which is one of the most important causes of death in industrialized countries. There are four of these types of drugs are: 1 - pacemakers 2 - supplements the heart 3 - blood expanders 4 - blood pressure reducers.

Pacemakers

Organizations are working on the stability of the heart pacemaker and organization. And people are using these medicines primarily for the treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation, in which case the beating heart without the system, and faster than normal speed.

Supplements the heart:

Supplements strengthen the heart and the heart contractions, which increases the blood circulation to the members of the body. Given these drugs in cases of weak heart beat and contractions. One of the strongest properties of these drugs digoxin and digitoxin.

Extenders blood vessels

Expansion or expansion of these drugs in small blood vessels. And are usually used for the treatment of narrow coronary arteries responsible for carrying blood to the heart. Known drugs extended to these arteries as coronary artery Extenders. Given these drugs for the treatment of severe distress in the coronary arteries, which causes severe pain in the chest when performing any work such as aerobics or walking. This is called a disease as angina pectoris. One of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of this disease, drugs and the second Ntroyjlisrin Alaizosorbyd nitrate and calcium blockers and beta blockers.

Blood pressure reducers

Blood pressure reducers used in the treatment of arterial hypertension. These reducers some drugs expanded the small blood vessels with a capacity to relax smooth muscle in the aspects of these vessels, which reduces the pressure on the walls of blood vessels. There are other medications to treat high blood pressure, which work in different ways. In most cases, doctors prescribe Xenical or more per patient to reduce blood pressure.


Drugs that affect the nervous system

Affect the most popular drugs on the brain and other parts of the nervous system. One of these drugs alcohol and caffeine in cocoa and coffee and tea, cannabis and drugs such as heroin, morphine and sleeping pills. There are five types of drugs affecting the nervous system, namely: 1 - painkillers 2 - anesthetics 3 - hallucinogen 4 - stimuli 5 - Almahbtat.

Analgesics

Working analgesics to relieve pain and remove them without any loss of consciousness or weakening of other senses such as touch or taste. For example, remove the housing without the headaches that impair the ability to sense heat or cold, or taste the food.

NSAIDs are divided into two main sections, namely: 1 drug 2 is drugs. Both live in pain, noting that the narcotic analgesics cause drowsiness and dizziness. At the start of use of disposal may feel some change. Among the most famous non-narcotic analgesic drug aspirin. The narcotic analgesics include opiates derived from opium poppy such as morphine, codeine, and some drugs like Balovionat vehicle or industrially produced. Opioids include codeine, heroin and morphine.

Physicians prescribe narcotic analgesics for the treatment of severe pain associated with cancer or severe injuries. But make use of maintenance addict addicted, and dependent entirely dependent upon, causing certain diseases and symptoms when you stop the abuse of a sudden. Therefore, doctors do not prescribe these drugs only if the non-narcotic analgesics have failed. See: the drug.

Anesthetics

General anesthetics lose a sense of feeling in all parts of the body, leading to loss of consciousness, including drugs and Alhalotan Alteobintal given when a surgical procedure. Topical anesthetics inhibit the sensation of pain in areas that are given them or what is known as its neighboring only local anesthesia. One of these medicines drug Lidocaine and procaine. Often and used by dentists and doctors during surgery in the eye or when you perform other operations that do not require a complete loss of consciousness. See: Anesthesiology.

Hallucinogens

(LSD) and caused hallucinations of man. Are those that see the situation where the person or hear or feel things that do not exist in reality. Called such drugs also psychotropic drugs or mind detectors. For these drugs the ability to distort human perception of himself, and when surrounded by things. Examples of such drugs for drugs. Q. D. And lawn and Almsklin. These drugs have been used in the past in some experiments treatment of mental illness or mental.

Stimuli

Help the body to overcome fatigue and drowsiness or fatigue, and alert the nervous system of these drugs and increase its effectiveness and its activity, and these drugs caffeine, cocaine and stimulants manufactured experimentally, and the names of the stimuli or Almiqzat Almsohrat. See: amphetamine.

Occur stimuli change and increase in activities of mental, physical, when used for drug abusers. But followed by a feeling of depression, frustration, anxiety and psychological disturbance and apathy, which encourages drug abusers to take another dose to eliminate these effects. And repeated this dose, which helps to addiction, and it is rare that doctors prescribe stimulants to remove the symptoms of fatigue and exhaustion.

Almahbtat

Almahbtat and reduce tension and worry and anxiety and discourage nervous system, and includes a list of groups Almahbtat Antrnat sedatives, and alcohol.

Sedatives

Leading drugs of abuse in small doses to alleviate or remove the human disorder, occur while large doses increase in confidence and drowsiness. And physicians prescribe these drugs for the treatment of mental illness difficult and painful, it reduces the incidence of terror substantially. The resort, some people who can not stand the pressure of daily life to use some mild sedatives, although not suffering from any mental illness. It should be noted that the maintenance abuse may lead to addiction. See: calming.

Antrnat

Similarity of sedatives in their ability to calm the unrest, and weaken or remove the rights, in addition to its potential to cause sleep. Therefore prescription for the treatment of insomnia or the inability to sleep naturally and is Alberpithorat manufacturer of laboratory Antrnat more widely used. One of these medicines Abanntobarpittal and secobarbital, called the public the names of these drugs such as Barbs and by limiting the balls cavity. There is also a group of drugs Antrnp Albrpithorip such as chloral hydrate and Albarraladhead. And lead to constantly abuse Antrnat to weaken the effects in the body, forcing abusers to increase the dosage to get the usual effects. See: Antrn, real estate; Alberpithorat, real estate.

Alcohol

A common name given to the substance ethyl alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and alcohol. And cause relaxation of alcohol, physical inactivity and sleepiness when drug abusers. Like Depressives of the nervous system lead to constantly abuse because of the addiction. See: Alcohol.

Other types of drugs. In addition to the above-mentioned drugs, it works a lot of people other drugs such as: 1 - diuretics. 2 - hormones. 3 - Vitamins 4 - Antineoplastic. 5 - brakes immunity.

Diuretics

Help to increase the composition of urine and expelled to the outside. They are used in situations that weaken the kidney function in the event of certain diseases. Weak kidney leads to the accumulation of salts and water and Aktzanhma in the body, so taking diuretics for the reform of such disorders and the work of the kidneys. As well as the use of these drugs in the treatment of arterial hypertension.

Hormones

Of chemicals that are configured and excretion mediated by some of the glands within the body. The work of these materials to control many body functions and organization, such as growth, reproduction and breeding. And the similarity of some animal hormones human hormones. The scientists from the manufacture of synthetic hormones. The use of natural and synthetic hormones as drugs in several ways.

And physicians prescribe hormones to patients who can not secrete sufficient amounts of hormones in their bodies, such as, diabetes patients who can not secrete enough insulin. As well as some of the hormones used in the treatment of some diseases associated with lack of hormones, for example, doctors prescribe hormone cortisol, a hormone stimulant. Q. Tel. U for the treatment of rheumatoid disease. As well as use some of the hormones to prevent pregnancy or birth control so as to ability to control their reproductive activities. See: hormone.

Vitamins

Of the basic elements of good health. A shortage in some of these materials to the emergence of some diseases, such as disease rickets and scurvy. The ideal meal right good source for reasonable amounts of vitamins, but some doctors turn to give some of the vitamins in the form of tablets or injections for some patients when necessary. See: the vitamin.

Antineoplastic

Crash anti-tumor cancer cells in the body. Although the discovery of many of these drugs and improve, but that all the correct physical harm cells and cancer. Have used some anti-tumor treatment of some cancer patients. Researchers and scientists are working today on the discovery of drugs to cancer cells only.

PARP immunity. When you can some foreign proteins from entering the body to act as antigens and urges the white blood cells to manufacture some of its own antibodies and secreted. See: AIDS.

The same process occurs when you move a member from one person to another, where the member quoted in the work of the antigen. The body manufactures its own antibodies, leading to attack the user transferred mediated by these antibodies, and this results in destruction of the movable member.

The drugs inhibit the immune-inhibiting formation of antibodies after the transfer of any member of one person to another. They are used to prevent the term movable member installed in the body of the transferee. One of these medicines; azathioprine and cyclosporin.
How drugs work

Although the drugs are given in multiple ways, but it works as soon as they arrived to change the speed of blood on the activity of cells of the body. How to interpret the theory of the impact of future medicine based on the theory of the future impact of drugs occur Mstqubladtha be associated with molecules in the cells of the body. In normal circumstances the body produces molecules activated with the capability of docking molecules future. The reaction occurs or the link delay or accelerate the chemical reactions inside the cell. Associated with some drugs a part of the future, which prevents the particles of activated receptors with the full link, and then inhibits the activity of the cell. Similarity of some stimulant drugs molecules inside the cell are large, enabling them to fully link leads to increased activity of the cell.
Use of medication

Most of the medicines given by mouth, some of which is given by injection or inhalation or survey on the skin. It determines the way the introduction of pharmaceutical dosage form and the purpose of consumption. Gases Alambnjp can not be entered for the body only through inhalation, and ointments can not take advantage of them only by placing them on the place of the injured.

There are some advantages and disadvantages of each method of use of medication, for example, we find that the abuse of oral medications is one of the easiest ways. But you can not use all medicines in this way, some of them crash in the stomach when exposed to acidic juice. But if you give drugs by injection, the impact would be rapid, but may accompany the process of injection pain, or increased susceptibility to infection if you use the same syringe for several people.

There are new ways to abuse drugs. One of these methods use the drug through the so-called Baellatkp or patch through the skin. A patch containing a layer of drug is leveled at the skin. And then the drug is excreted and absorption through the skin and bringing it into the blood. The drugs are taking this way Nitroyjlisrin drug, which helps extend the coronary artery. Another way to abuse the drug pump implanted method is a small metal disk by a small closet can be filled. And the intervention of the pump in the body after surgery is a simple open the skin and enter the pump, where the pump will continue to pay small amounts of the drug inside the body through the blood. When you run out of medicine can be filled through the injection pump through the skin.
Work in body

After taking medicine, and absorbed and reach the bloodstream, up to all the members of the body and enters into the cells of tissues, where there is impact. There are a few types of drugs have the potential to cause effects before reaching the blood. One of these medicines and eye drops topical anesthetics and nasal sprays. When the absorption of these drugs, we find that their weak due to absorption in very small amounts, and therefore can not produce any additional effect.

Most of the drugs effects occur by changing the activity of cells of the body. To explain how the medication is working scientists Enter Pharmaceuticals theory the future. Based on this theory, control chemical reactions inside cells in the activity. And controls every chemical reaction in the activity of the cell and determine the speed or slow. The drug effect occurs as a result of change of one or more of the chemical reactions inside cells. And to bring about these effects are associated with each drug receptor molecules act naturally on the Control of chemical reactions within cells.

Explain the theory of how the future work of a drug and medicine can do or does not do inside the cell. After receiving a link drug molecules inside the cell, it can change the speed of chemical reactions that are controlled by receptor molecules naturally, but can not create new activities in the cell.

In most cases, we find that the interaction between the body and medicine is not a one-way. As medicine alters the activity of the body, the body is changing medicine and turn to new materials with the effectiveness of a weak, compared to the original medication, and called these operations, bio-conversion or metabolism or drug metabolism.

These operations and protects the body from the same lasting impact of the drug. And are most of these processes in the liver, but note that the survival of drug-consuming in the human body of a patient's liver, doctors and this reduces the doses of medication for patients with liver disease to avoid the side effects of medication.
Effect in the body

Occur drugs have beneficial effects and harmful in the human body. When taking a drug to strengthen the heart and Tqlsath or remove the pain, for example, it is happening these beneficial effects as desired. But at the same time other side-effects occur, especially if a large dose.

Medicines and their side effects occur and that the ability of the drug after entering the body to reach all members of the body and Sahihaa Marbha. For example, physicians prescribe a drug morphine to relieve severe pain and removed as a result of its ability to gain access to the cells, and each change of activity in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in loss of pain sensation. But at the same time up to other organs and affects the cells, leading to vomiting, constipation, and low respiratory rate and other other side effects.

And generally strengthens the increased dose of medication effects and weaken these effects by reducing the dose, but may upset this consistency from one person to another. For example, we may find that doubling the dose of a drug may increase the effects of three times in a person, does not occur while any increase in the influence of another person.

Section describes the types of medicines, the positive effects of drugs, but there are some negative effects are called adverse effects of harmful and is divided into three types: 1 - side effects of 2 - the effects of hypersensitivity 3 - toxic effects. Also leads to sustained abuse alcohol and drugs and some other drugs to the case of addiction.
Side Effects

All drugs cause side effects. And doctors can be expected and to tell the patient. Which in most cases, minor effects do not prevent the use of medicines.

The effects of hypersensitivity called allergic effects or effects caused by allergies, and only occurs in some patients who are sensitive to a particular drug, may be simple or severe effects. For example, note the inability of some people taking aspirin or penicillin as a result of excessive sensitivity to these drugs.
Toxic effects of the drug

Appear after poisoning him after very large doses it can lead to damage to body cells and killing of human beings. Each drug toxic effects is simple, but appears more serious when taking large doses.
Drug addiction

Perform maintenance on the use of large quantities of certain drugs such as alcohol, amphetamines, and drugs to Alberpithorat need of psychological and physical effects permanent, and called such a case of addiction. Inherent in this situation is often called resistance or the body (body burden) of the effects of the medication; as usual feel weak impact of the drug, which pushes him to increase the usual dose for the former to influence the updated small dose. Called the phase of apparent physical or psychological dependence or both the situation of drug addiction. Accompanied by a sudden stop on the abuse of drugs causing addiction symptoms called withdrawal symptoms or disease withdrawal from the drug. See: misuse of drugs; drug addiction.
The expulsion of the body of drugs

The body expels the drugs with some of the waste with the remnants of expelled in the urine and feces, sweat and tears, or by exhaling in the case of some general anesthetics invasive.
How to produce and sell medicines

Is the pharmaceutical industry and marketing of the largest business in several countries. We find that France, Germany, England, Japan, Switzerland and the United States of America of the largest countries in this regard. And respect of this part of the statement in the article how to produce and sell drugs mainly.
Sources of some medicines

Most medicines are manufactured chemically in a laboratory companies and other medications come from plants, animals and minerals and bacteria. Poppy plant for example, is the source of opium which is extracted from some drugs such as morphine and codeine. And use table salt, sodium chloride and some other materials for the manufacture of intravenous fluids that are injected in the veins of some patients who can not eat and drink.
Sources of medicines

The pharmaceutical industry produces medicines chemical compound primarily, as well as producing some of the medicines extracted from plants, fungi, mold, animals and minerals, bacteria and genes.








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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Medicine   السبت سبتمبر 25, 2010 8:55 pm

Chemical plants

Chemists making a lot of value that medicines are not found naturally, which may match or exceed those derived from plants, fungi, mold and bacteria, animals and minerals. And drug companies can manufacture and production of large quantities of drugs manufactured in the lab, at a lower cost compared to extract drugs from natural resources. For example, the user draws a hormone hydrocortisone for the treatment of arthritis by the adrenal glands of cattle and sheep, but this hormone can be manufactured at low cost compared to chemical extraction and manufacturing cost of the natural hormone. In addition to this, we find that serious side effects of the hormone factory laboratory are less than those caused by the natural hormone.
Plants and mushrooms
Poppy

Pharmaceutical companies produce many of the medicines extracted from plants and mushrooms, and supplements the heart of these drugs and painkillers and some antibiotics. For example, drug digitalis is extracted Tonic for the heart from the leaves of foxglove tree. It follows from the penicillin-Fitr, is a property housing morphine for pain of a substance extracted from the sap of the opium poppy. There are also some medicines extracted from plants and are manufactured by pharmaceutical companies such as hashish and Almsklin.
Animals

There are some important drugs that are derived from animal cells and fibers such as hormones used to treat diseases of the joints and the lack of hormones in the body. There is also a hormone, insulin extracted from the pancreas gland in cattle and pigs, and is used by millions of diabetics. As well as physicians prescribe hormone Altairoxin extracted from the thyroid glands in cattle and swine for the treatment of some patients who can not Gddhm thyroid production of sufficient quantities of it.
Minerals

Some pharmaceutical companies make many of the medicines derived from minerals. For example, are manufactured of metal, iodine tincture of iodine, used to treat bacterial infections in wounds and bruises placements. As well as the manufacture of silver nitrate in the form of powder to be placed on wounds to stop bleeding and to prevent microbial infections. In addition to these doctors use dilute solution of silver nitrate to treat some eye diseases and skin.
Bacteria

Scientists have chemistry and biology to isolate some of the human genome and feed the bacteria to get some chemicals or hormones that are similar to those manufactured by these genes in humans. After this is done to isolate what was manufactured and purified in bacterial cells and used for the treatment of some patients. These include insulin and drugs of topical interferon, a substance the body manufactures when exposed to infectious viral infections. The substance has also the ability to control diseases mediated by pathogenic viruses, and there is more than one type of which is used to treat some tumors. See: topical interferon.

Experiments on animals to help determine the effectiveness and safety of the drug. As part of these tests is the weight of the animal to see the different effects of the drug between animals with different weights. Pharmaceutical research and development. Continue to pharmaceutical companies in the discovery of many new drugs. Although the discovery of some drugs may be by chance, but that the discovery of most modern medicines are in the implementation of the idea of what is specific to a new type of medication or drug is developed. After manufacturing the drug being tested and developed to be a drug is safe and easy to use. This process may take ten years, a process very expensive.
The discovery of new medicines

This process is due to the responsibility of researchers, chemists in pharmaceutical companies, who are either installing medicine laboratory or extracted from natural sources, a process that could take between months and years. For example, a discovery took antibiotics tetracycline drug Oxyacetylene of researchers at a U.S. company for two years spent in testing many types of soil were Astjlabha from several regions in the world, has reached these samples more than one hundred thousand samples. And use of this drug to treat bronchitis, pneumonia and whooping cough.

In order that the new drug discovery process researchers are a lot of testing on animals to determine the effectiveness of the discovered material and non-seriousness. The initial experiments are on small animals such as mice, rats, and animals lint. When the success of experiments on these animals, given some medicine for large animals such as dogs and monkeys. Requires the discovery of one drug is effective and safe workout, hundreds of newly manufactured drugs. After the discovery of drug experiments conducted to find out how it works, and the pharmaceutical form, which can make it, and how the body expel him, and the expected side effects. After collecting all this information to send the company discovered this information to the competent authority of medicines in the company's country asking them permission to test the new drug and tested in some people.
Experiments on human

The competent authority after giving the medicine to authorize the company discovered Ptjeribh to humans, discovered the company plans to conduct two types of clinical trials. First try the drug on a group of healthy volunteers. After the success of these experiments are testing the drug on a group of patients who suffer from the same disease that made the drug from him.

The one doctors (researchers, clinicians) of the company oversees all clinical trials, and assisted on a range of doctors belonging to one of the major hospitals, the processing of patients who volunteer to participate in these experiments. The number of volunteers and treated with medicine for the new type of disease and the medication itself. Often involving hundreds and thousands of patients in these trials, which could take between several months and years.

The tests, accurate and cautious of the most important responsibilities of the company discovered the drug. As well as ensure the company producing the drug and the government departments responsible for the drugs in a country to protect citizens and their health after the arrival of any drug is harmful to health to them. But we must always remember the fact that, whatever the degree of the tests, the initial precision and care, you may not discover some of the adverse effects and unexpected of the drug. We still recall the sad example that happened in Europe at the beginning of the sixties of the twentieth century, when dealt pregnant women the drug Antrn Ttalidomid, resulting in birth defects in many children born, and that the birth of children without hands or legs, but the incidence of such the disastrous effects is very low.

The clinical researcher of the company producing the drug with other scientists assess the results of clinical trials of the new drug. And are compared with pre-existing drugs to treat the same disease for which the manufacture of the drug. And as well as researchers continue to study the effects of the new drug on animals. When the company is convinced that the new drug with good efficacy and excellent safety, ask the competent authorities allowed it to produce drugs and medicines sold to the public.

Drug development that have been produced. The company that discovered the drug developed in the form of a safe and easy-to-use pre-sold to the public. So researchers at the company seeks to learn the material to be added to the article the new drug to be manufactured in the form of capsules or tablets or liquid or any other pharmaceutical form can be used. And called such additional material grounds which do not affect the efficacy of the drug. As well as researchers examine and decide the validity of drug use. After the completion of each of these steps the company plans to produce the drug in large quantities.
Mass production

Producing companies during the period of research and development of small amounts of the drug. And then working to make sure that the method of manufacturing the experimental quantities suitable for the manufacture of large quantities of medicine and production. That is why the company would start production testing on a small scale industrial units by using one of the pilot before the production of the drug in bulk. This experience may lead to some changes in the manufacturing process.

The corporation produced a table to accurately reflect the plan of mass production; because the production of any drug in very large quantities may lead to damage during storage and before sale to the public. The company also confirmed that the amounts of each drug was manufactured in the manner and the same accuracy. Therefore be examined random samples of each batch manufactured, and if there be any error in manufacturing is recycled amount or cancellation and destruction.
Distribution and sale
Lab Medicine

Medicines are divided into two sections: Section can be sold without a prescription, OTC and another requires the sale to highlight a prescription from a doctor or a dentist, so that the pharmacist selling it. And drugs that are sold require a prescription include aspirin and some cough medicines are safe.
Drug names

Each medication called smiling: 1 Name 2 Name of chemical science. In addition to this can be of any medication name and one or more brand names, for example, we find that the chemical name for a diuretic drugs is 6 chloro 3.4 Dual Hydro 7 Slwamyl 2 H 1, 2, 4 Benzuthiadyazen, 1, 1 - dioxide . The scientific name is Hidrokhlorothyazer, and trade names: Izidricks and Hyderodayrl and Haidroosovljeurk.

The chemical name describes the chemical composition of the drug, known as the fact that the drug, but the name of a long and difficult as in the previous example, therefore, does not commonly use these names.

The scientific name of the drug name for a brief, and gives an idea of the chemical composition of the drug, as is evident in medicine (Hidrokhlorothyazer) in the previous example, but does not prescribe medication completely. It features short and easy to use, compared to chemical name.

And give manufacturers the drug trade name, and the many companies to sell a particular drug, but under different brand names, and in some cases, companies sell medicines under the scientific names.
About Us

Are likely to be the peoples of the pre-history has used drugs before the dawn of the first civilization in the world; It is likely that they have discovered the ability of some plants to relieve their pain and recovery from some diseases, and may have noticed also eat some of the sick animals for some plants and healing, and They then take up these plants the same when you are sick.

Date Older prescriptions written dating back to 2000 BC. M. And most of these recipes rely on plants for the treatment of various diseases.
Medicines in times past

Is a panel of clay dating to the era of the Sumerian civilization in the Middle East in 2000 BC. M first written record of the use of medicines, and in this painting are twelve and a prescription. As well as containing ply Egypt dates back to 1550 BC. M. More than seven hundred medicine. And use the ancient Chinese and Romans many medicines, and the Romans is the first to have opened a pharmacy and the first to write a prescription, determine the quantity of each substance contained in the medicine.

However, despite the use of ancient for many medicines, but most of their medicine were not successful, possibly because healing resulting from the use of some of these natural remedies to some of the diseases that cured them automatically after a few days of their occurrence, Mmaidf some people to think that healing may be due to those treatments. On the other hand we must recognize that there are a number of useful drugs discovered by the ancients. He used the ancient Greeks and Romans opium to relieve pain, and discovered the ancient Egyptians castor oil to treat constipation, as discovered by the Chinese eat liver for the treatment of anemia.
Medicine for Muslims

When the development of medicine and medicine in the Islamic world days of the Abbasid Caliphate, Muslim doctors saw that he must separate from the profession of pharmacy for the medical profession, so be aware of medicines allocated separately. Was applied in Baghdad and then in Egypt and Andalusia. This helped the prosperity of the profession of pharmacy in the Islamic world, Muslim scholars and managed full-time, many of prescriptions and the composition of the drug, which has caused a great revolution in pharmacology.

In Europe, it appeared the profession of pharmacy as a profession separate from medicine for the first time in the century atheist century AD after three hundred years of experience of the early Muslims. This was in Germany when Emperor Frederick II issued an injunction prohibiting the practice of medicine or pharmacy except with special permission. The present emperor invited a large number of Muslim scholars from East and West for the teaching of medical sciences at the University of Naples, School of Medicine in Salerno. And the Arabs are the ones who laid the foundations of the pharmaceutical industry They were bringing drugs from India and others. Then started to make various drugs and to treat the sick, and they study and make up the books. The Jabir ibn Hayyan (120-198 AH 0.737 to 813 m), first invoked the sulfuric acid and called oil of vitriol, the first discovered by caustic soda. Search and Jabir ibn Hayyan and toxins as well as in methods of treatment of downsides. And dividing them into animal and plant poisons and stone. This is the Islamic world Galilee at the forefront of experimental scientists, who relied on scientific experiments in laboratories and factories to gain access to scientific facts. His value and left a significant impact on the scientists who Asroh and those who came after him, even today, and surprised many of the capabilities of scientific Jabir ibn Hayyan, who arrived to each of these discoveries in the ninth century AD. We find European scientists in various sectors of their witness him take precedence and talent and virtue.

The pharmacy at the early Muslims a separate profession, with its own rules, traditions and foundations. Are not allowed to practice pharmacist at the time the pharmaceutical industry only after they pass the test qualifying him to be held after the study of pharmacology, and then granted a certificate authorizing him to practice, and registers his name in the detection Pharmacists practitioners. When the early Muslims excelled in chemistry, applied sciences, the pharmacy, and resulted in a large number of drug vehicle. Says Professor Mierhof: The Pharmacology Arab continued in Europe until the mid-nineteenth century AD.

Was a pharmacy student to study the constitution demonstrates the ways in which medical must be followed in the preparation of medicines and drugs. It was the opening of pharmacies to prepare prescriptions. Each pharmacist to lead oath before practicing the preparation of medicinal drugs. Not only that, but the Islamic state at the time set drug prices and put a tight control on the pharmacist to prepare medicines and laboratories, is in the inspection of pharmacies from time to time to make sure to follow the laws of the prevailing drug. If the pharmacist has committed a violation related to fraud and dishonesty, it would be severely penalized up to the death penalty. And Muslims are the first of the foundations of a school of pharmacy in the world, and the first started in the preparation of chemical compounds related to drug such as alcohol and nitric acid. They are also the first who started the process of distillation in the history of chemistry and applied pharmacology.

A. The Muslim physicians and pharmacists a number of valuable books describes drawing and explanation of medical and scientific methods for the preparation of the drug from the plants and medicinal herbs, animals and minerals. And clarified the duties of these books in the form of Islamic pharmacies that have spread in the capitals of Islamic countries at the time, and describes the white dress that was worn by a Muslim, a practicing pharmacist in the pharmacy profession. This continues to prevail even now. The early Muslims excelled pharmacists in the preparation of syrups from sugar cane, and the use of mineral salts in the preparation of prescriptions. And were able to prepare alcohol and aromatic oils in referencing. Pharmacy Books and the Islamic left behind by the early Muslims as follows:

* Ticket Kernels

Attribution of the Son of David, looking at the drugs the old Arab, and includes the prescription of herbs and medicines. The Literature of Pharmacy job in the past centuries. The herbs and medicinal plants that were received by the paper to prepare the drunken local anesthetic, and sow the close friendship for the treatment of heart disease, and parsley seed for the treatment of urinary retention. And look at the importance of this book that scholars of Europe and America began examining it in 1964, to discover new drugs, and began this research in the Netherlands and Germany, America, Denmark and Italy.

* Platform for the shop and the Constitution of the Senate

Attribution of Abi Al-Muna Dawud Ibn Abi Nasr, who lived in the seventh century. The authors of the books of folk medicine. And the tips were useful for recipes that must be available in the secretariat for the pharmacist and good manners, religion and trust and the fear of God Almighty.

* Compassion in medicine and wisdom

Speaking in folk medicine, and describes some of the drugs used to treat alopecia areata and vitiligo and joint pain, back, and shortness of breath, and diseases of the liver and spleen, and bladder stones, hemorrhoids, bloody urine and methods of cupping, bloodletting and the treatment of burns.

The Islamic state has been keen to order the first doctors to write down what they call a drug to the patient on a special paper was called the ticket or a copy or the character or prescription. And still use this system in place to this day. He chose the British Academy of Pharmacy Galt Greek and Islamic physician Ibn Sina as the greatest two in history have had credit in pharmacology. The pharmacists in the Islamic civilization choose very carefully, and must must have the attributes of integrity and efficiency. And each had a pharmacy maintained by the Secretary and oversees their medicines. In each hospital there was a place on which to prepare for pharmacy and dispensing drugs to patients in addition to the Space Science Department of Pharmacy and Medicine.

Benjamin Lee Jordan says in his book of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in the History of Medicine: ¸ The first to put the pharmacy to become part of the hospital are Arab scientists •. Provides Abdullah defense in his book, Flags of Arabs and Muslims in medicine that Muslim scholars were placed in each hospital pharmacy since the twelfth century AD, and so the idea of establishing a pharmacy inside the hospital is the idea of transfer of the world about the Arab Islamic civilization, applied by more than eight centuries.

Among the most important centers of Medicine and Pharmacy in the Islamic civilization, Alexandria, Baghdad, Damascus and Jundishapur in Persia. Appeared pharmacists Muslims have had a great credit in the classification of Pharmacology: such as Abu Yusuf Canadian (185-252 AH 0.801 to 866 m), and a nostalgic ibn Ishaq (194-265 H, 809 869 m), and Ali ibn Sahl al-Tabari (born 154 AH - 770 AD) , and Abu Bakr al-Razi (240-320 AH 0.854 to 932 m), Ali ibn Abbas, Ahwaz (died in 384 AH, 994 meters), and Abu Qasim Zahrawi (324-404 AH 0.935 to 1013 m), Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (351-440 e 0.962-1048 م ) and Ibn Sina (371-429 AH 0.981 to 1037 m) and Abu Imran al-Qurtubi (529-601 e .1134-1204 AD) and Abu Muhammad bin al-Bitar (575-646 e .1179-1248 AD).

As Zakaria Bin Mohammed Al-Qazwini (605 AH 682 0.1208-1283 AD), wrote about medication, treatment and follow own approach in the presentation of prescriptions; was little medical properties of the material used in the recipe as it arrived before them, and doctors of his time. He was able to use the Caspian are several ways of treatment such as: drinking and rinsing the mouth and eating, suppositories, suspension and smoking and prose and spraying, surveying, Electroplating and evaporation and smell, including external and internal treatments. He was able to divide the drugs into three types:

* Medicines Metal:

Include metals such as gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and precious stone paper and stone shell and stone rain, stone and crystal stone R'ha and so on, and fat bodies such as mercury and sulfur, oil, and amber.

* Botanical medicine:

This is divided into two categories: gifts: berries and oak trees, cypress, eucalyptus and palm trees. And the Department of stars such as rice, lupine, mustard, garlic and basil.


* Animal medicine:

These are derived from animals Kalbaqrp and the Persians, buffalo, rabbit and antelope, lion, fox, wolf. It Kalplbul birds, geese, pigeons, TeamSpeak and punishment. Include prescription here Kalazm animal parts, meat and skin, secretions and milk.
Medicines in the Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages (400 - 1500 m), twice the passion for science and learning in Europe, and therefore not added the Europeans only a little bit of drugs and their characteristics, on the contrary, doctors said the Arabs a lot of information about them, in addition to what came to them from the knowledge of them from the ancient Romans and Chinese, The transfer of Arabs all this information to Europe. During the Middle Ages has intensified the need for drugs, which led to the proliferation of pharmacies in Europe after the spread in the Arab world. But until that time there was no knowledge about how the members of the body, and causes of infectious diseases, and the modus operandi of medicines, thereby continuing the abuse of people of many of the medicines failed and harmful, and a few useful medicines.
Scientific progress

Show doctors and scientists through the centuries, the sixth and seventh centuries made important progress in the science of medicine and in some other fields of science, which led to the improvement and development of medicines.

In the early sixteenth century Swiss doctor began Philips Barselsos in the use of metals such as lead and mercury to treat many diseases, but requests the drug development progress in the knowledge structure of the body and physiology.

In 1543, he published Belgian doctor Andreas Fzalios Abu anatomy first book to describe the body composition, which led to the invalidity of many of the misconceptions that were prevalent before the anatomy of the body. At the beginning of the seventeenth century AD, discovered the English physician William Harvey's blood circulation and how blood circulation in the body after pumping mediated by the heart. In the late seventeenth century AD, the world discovered the Dutch amateur Anton van Ivenhok bacteria after the use of some primitive microscopes. But it should be noted that the role of germs in disease has not been proven only in the nineteenth century.
Pharmaceutical revolution

Pharmaceutical revolution began in the eighteenth century AD, and it continues even now. During this period, scientists were able to discover hundreds of medicines and how they work and pathogens and how they work and functions of the body. The use of medicines to the emergence of a great revolution in the practice of medicine and the development of science and medicine has become an important note, as the drug industry has become one of the largest industries.

In 1796, enable the English physician Edward Jenner of the introduction of vaccination method for the prevention of the deadly smallpox disease, as the vaccinated children Bakih was taken from a woman infected with cowpox, which led to this disease compared to the simple disease smallpox.

The doctor then injected the child Jenner smallpox material did not hurt the child with the disease, because the boy's body exposed to cowpox virus have given his body resistance and immunity against the deadly disease smallpox. This prompted the discovery scientists to search for vaccines against various diseases, which led to the emergence of immunology and development.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century scientists learn how to extract medicines from plants, where morphine was extracted in 1806. After a few years has been extracted drug quinine and extraction, in addition to some other plant medicines.

During the forties of the nineteenth century, enter all of the Americans, Crawford Long, a doctor, dentist, William Morton each individual method of use of anesthetics to assist in the surgical procedure. In the late nineteenth century was able French scientist Louis Pasteur and German physician Robert Koch of the consolidation theory of germs and diseases linked to approval. Pasteur has demonstrated the ability of bacteria to cause infectious diseases and potential for prevention of diseases to kill germs that cause them, as well as enable the hut of innovation method for determining the pathogenesis of each disease.

In the late nineteenth century, held the German scientist Paul Ehrlich's numerous research on the immune system and cancer, this research has helped in the development of fields of immunology and chemotherapy in modern medicine.

During the twentieth century AD, has accelerated the pace of progress in the pharmaceutical revolution, it was discovered most of the essential drugs now known. Has been extracted is the first hormone adrenaline in 1898, brokered by the U.S. pharmaceutical world John Ebel. In the twenties of the twentieth century managed a research team headed by Canadian physician Frederick Pantinj the discovery of the hormone insulin and extraction, has saved millions of diabetics.

In the early twentieth century also enter a German scientist. Paul Ehrlich's method of chemotherapy for the treatment of infectious diseases, and in this way chemicals are used to kill germs that cause diseases, and to destroy cancer cells. In 1910, Ehrlich discovered the drug arsphenamine Salvarsan known brand name as the first drug of chemical treatments, which paved the way for the discovery of many antibiotics and sulfa drugs.

In 1928, the discovery of penicillin as the first antibiotic, which was discovered by English scientist Alexander Fleming. In 1935, the doctor Gerhard Domagk Prontosil of drug discovery is the first of a sulfa drug, and then was discovered many of these compounds and antibiotics that have demonstrated proven effectiveness in the treatment of many infectious diseases.

In 1903, it was discovered Alberpithorat reduced the activity of the nervous system and muscles. In the early thirties of the twentieth century was the use of amphetamines to stimulate the nervous system. In the fifties of the twentieth century was the discovery of some tranquilizers, and during the sixties of the same century was the introduction of birth control pills, birth, or birth control pills and use.

Growth of the pharmaceutical industry. Until the beginning of the twentieth century AD, the number of manufacturers of drugs quite a bit, and the pharmacists prepare what they are selling most of the drug, and preparation of the special referencing. But after the occurrence of major developments in the world of drugs, there have been modern pharmaceutical industry, to the discovery of many drugs that require preparation and manufacture of special equipment, and can not be manufactured in a private pharmacy. And also helped the Industrial Revolution in Europe to discover new ways to manufacture medicines in bulk, which led to the emergence of large European pharmaceutical companies, which has controlled the world of the pharmaceutical industry for several years.

In the United States of America, reference date of commencement of the pharmaceutical industry to the era of the American Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1783. After the revolution adopted distributors of medications during the war with other industrialists ways the pharmaceutical industry, which began recently huge in Europe.

Helped the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, the emergence of a great need for medicines and popular market has led to the growth of U.S. pharmaceutical industry and its evolution, where the industry has expanded to keep pace with the needs of the country of drugs. The expansion in the industry to export medicines to some countries of the world, and continued this development so far, making the United States of America of the largest producers and exporters of drugs to them.

Over time, increased global demand for drugs has increased the number of discoveries of new medicines, pharmaceutical industries and has worked to keep pace with these global needs. And worked to discover more of the global pharmaceutical and more modern medicines. We note the day the U.S. occupation of the first rank in the list of manufacturers of medicines.

Although the drugs may informed us at the present time dramatically, but it led to the emergence of the worst problems that confront us and challenge us, namely the problem of drug abuse and addiction. On the one hand and one helped medicines to control many diseases, treatment and pain and tensions, and helped our bodies to function normally, but at the same time and as a result of the availability and the misuse of some, such as alcohol, drugs and other medicines led to the addiction of millions of them and their dependence upon, and increased From this tragedy, manufacturing and illegal use of some medications.

The requirements that we face today in the modern drug discovery less than excellent in the side effects of some medicines currently available to treat some diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and other deadly diseases that cause or disability. In the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century AD Scholars drugs increased their efforts in the discovery of such drugs. May soon hear their success in the discovery of a drug to slow down the aging process. Medical milestones during the twentieth century

1903 discovery of medicine Brbatall Alberpithorat the first set.

In 1910 the emergence of chemotherapy. This method is used chemicals to kill germs that cause disease.

1922 discovery of the hormone insulin, as discovered by the research team headed by Canadian physician Frederick Pantinj. Was the use of hormone for the treatment of diabetes.

1928 discovery of penicillin as the first antibiotic. Discovered by English scientist Alexander Fleming.

The thirties of the twentieth century AD began to use amphetamines in medical treatment.

1935 was the discovery of a drug or group Prontosil sulfa. Discovered by German physician Gerard Domagk.

Fifties of the twentieth century AD, several scientists have developed artificial task combinations of sedatives that have been used widely. Was the discovery of a number of sedatives manufactured in the lab, developed.

In 1960 the emergence of oral contraceptives.

The seventies of the twentieth century AD stepped scientists and pharmaceutical researchers of their efforts to discover new drugs to treat cancer and other diseases that are not controlled by medical science until now. As well as developed the science of genes and genetic engineering methods of the Union of DNA. N. A. (DNA). The eighties and nineties of the twentieth century AD methods were used Union acid DNA commercially for the production of topical interferon and insulin and some other protein drugs. Researchers have developed methods of treatment using antibodies to a single cell.








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